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Based upon: (1) the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. and (2) Stout Graduate School formatting requirements

Hanging Indents (from Microsoft Help)

Select all the lines of a citation.

On the horizontal ruler, drag the Hanging Indent marker to the position where the indent starts. If the horizontal ruler that runs along the top of the document is not visible, click the View Ruler button at the top of the vertical scroll bar.
Indent in WORD image

Basic Rules - Do Read!

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.

  • All citations listed must be cited in text.

  • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work unless the work has more than six authors. If the work has more than six authors, list the first six authors and then use et al. after the sixth author's name to indicate the rest of the authors.

  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.

  • If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.

  • When referring to any work that is NOT a journal, such as a book, article, or Web page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.

  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.

  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.

  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.

References and InText Citations

APA style requires two elements for citing sources: intext citations and a references list. Together they allow the reader access to the sources consulted by the author. All sources cited in the text must appear in the references list; and, all sources listed must have been cited in the text.

All references are double spaced in the hanging indent format having the first line flush left with all other lines indented 5-7 spaces. See the left column for instructions to create a hanging indent reference citation.

Take particular care in formatting online sources.

Be sure to remove the URLs underlined in blue which indicates that the URL is linked. To change, right click on the URL; select "Hyperlink" and then "Remove Hyperlink."

For the most comprehensive example of references, see the APA manual pp. 193-224. Also, the APA Formatting and Style Guide (from the OWL) illustrates references examples.

Print - Books, Reports

Print Book--Basic Format:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. Author's Middle Initial. (Year of
       publication). Title of book: Subtitle. City, State City, Publisher.

Baym, G. (2010). From Cronkite to Colbert: The evolution of broadcast news.  
       Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

Book with Editor

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up 
. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Chapter in an Edited Book--Basic Format  (This is frequently a mystifying citation for the thesis-writer!)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. 
       Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor
        for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues
        across the life cycle
(pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Document or Technical Report

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness
 (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government
        Printing Office.

Conference Proceedings

Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First
       International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning
       Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Print - Journal Articles

Article in a journal (continuous pagination throughout volume)

Organista, K. C. (2009). New practice model for Latinos in need of social work
        services. Social Work, 54, 297-305.

Article in a journal (paginated by issue)

Frazier, A.B.  (2008). The world according to IM. Techonology Trends, 29(3), 151-162.



Cities, States and Countries: For U.S. cities, add the standard postal abbreviations for state (for example, "Chatham, MA"). Foreign cities should be followed by the name of their country (ex. "Brisbane, Australia").

Place of publication: Separate place of publication from publisher with a colon (for example "New York, NY: Zone Books"). If more than one city is given, list only the first.

Publisher names: "Co.", "Inc." and related abbreviations should not be included in citations (for example, "Ivan R. Dee, Inc." should be given as "Ivan R. Dee".)