Thesis writing incorporates information from published sources to add credibility and authority to the paper. Caution: when building on published research, do not plagiarize. The University takes this very seriously with severe penalties.
Two methods to properly integrate published information in research writing are paraphrasing and quoting. Intext citing is essential for both.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into the writer's own words. The original source must be acknowledged within the paraphrasing. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a broader segment of the source and condensing it. Paraphrasing should be used more frequently than quoting.
How to Paraphrase:
Methods of Paraphrasing:
The Chapter II literature review consists of information gathered from various sources including books, journal articles and online sources. When paraphrasing information from a source, it needs to be cited with an in-text reference.
Personal & Other Communications
The APA Publication Manual (p. 179) indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc. Personal communications are not cited in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:
According to D. Walch ( personal communication, January 19, 2007), Director of Human Resources....
EDIT Many people think that you need to cite after every single sentence that is not your own original thought. The truth is that you need to cite after the first sentence in a paragraph that is paraphrased information. The information following that citation is assumed to be from the same author (see the example and explanation on theQuotations page in this guide).
It is important to cite a few different sources in a paragraph to show that you can integrate information. However, you need to make it clear which information is from which source. If you go back and forth between authors, indicate this by citing after every applicable sentence, as in the following example:
The National Institute for Correctional Education (NICE) indicates that over half of
Generally, you will have a citation after the first or second sentence in every paragraph in Chapter II. You may not need a citation after the first sentence if it is some kind of introductory sentence or something that is “common knowledge.” Common knowledge refers to things that pretty much everyone knows, such as the world is round.